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# Question 37: NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 11-Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

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Question 37: NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 11-Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

(a) Quarks inside protons and neutrons are thought to carry fractional charges [(+ 2/3)e ; {—1/3)e]. Why do they not show up in Millikan’s oil-drop experiment?
(b) What is so special about the combination e/m? Why do we not simply talk of e and m separately?
(c) Why should gases be insulators at ordinary pressures and start conducting at very low pressure?
(d) Every metal has a definite work function. Why do all photo electrons not come out with the same energy if incident radiation is monochromatic? Why is there an energy distribution of photo electrons?
(e) The energy and momentum of an electron are related to the frequency and wavelength of the associated matter wave by the relations: E = hv, p = h/λ
But while the value of X is physically significant, the value of u (and therefore, the value of phase speed uλ) has no physical significance. Why?

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1. Solution:
(a) The quarks having fractional charges are thought to be confined within a proton and a neutron. These quarks are bound by forces. These forces become stronger when the quarks are tried to be pulled apart. That is why, the quarks always remain together. It is due to this reason that though fractional charges do exist in nature but the observable charges are always integral multiple of charge of electron.

(b)
The motion of electron in the electric and magnetic field is related with the basic equations All these equations involve e and m together, i.e., there is no equation in which e or m occurring alone. As a result of it, we study e/m of electron and do not talk of e and m separately for an electron.

(c) At ordinary pressures a few positive ions and electrons produced by the ionisation of the gas molecules by energetic rays (like X-rays, y-rays, cosmic rays etc. coming from outer space and entering the earth’s atmosphere) are not able to reach their respective electrodes, even at high voltages, due to their frequent collisions with gas molecules and recombinations. That is why the gases at ordinary pressures are insulators.
At low pressures, the density of the gas decreases, the mean free path of the gas molecules become large. Now under the effect of external high voltage, the ions acquire sufficient energy before they collide with molecules causing further ionisation. Due to it, the number of ions in the gas increases and it becomes a conductor.

(d) By work function of a metal, we mean the minimum energy required for the electron
in the highest level of conduction band to get out of the metal. Since all the electrons in the metal do not belong to that level but they occupy a continuous band of levels, therefore, for the given incident radiation, electrons knocked off from different levels come out with different energies.

(e) de broglie wavelength associated with the moving particle is Energy of the wave is E= hv = Energy of moving particle Check the complete chapter with solutions.
NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 11-Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter