Question 2: NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 5-Magnetism and Matter
Answer the following questions:
(a) The earth’s magnetic field varies from point to point in space. Does it also change with time? If so, on what time scale does it change appreciably?
(b) The earth’s core is known to contain iron. Yet geologists do not regard this as a source of the earth’s magnetism. Why?
(c) The charged currents in the outer conducting regions of the earth’s core are thought to be responsible for earth’s magnetism. What might be the battery (i.e., the source of energy) to sustain these currents?
(d) The earth may have even reversed the direction of its field several times during its history of 4 to 5 billion years. How can geologists know about the earth’s field in such distant past?
(e) The earth’s field departs from its dipole shape substantially at large distances (greater than about 30000 km). What agencies may be responsible for this distortion?
(f) Interstellar space has an extremely weak magnetic field of the order of 10-12 T. Can such a weak field be of any significant consequence? Explain.
(a) Yes, earth’s field undergoes a change with time. For e×ample, daily changes, annual changes, secular changes with period of the order of 960 years and irregular changes like magnetic storms. Time .scale for appreciable change is roughly a few hundred years.
(b) The earth’s core does contain iron but in the molten form only. This is not ferromagnetic and hence it cannot be treated as a source of earth’s magnetism.
(c) One of the possibilities is the radioactivity in the interior of the earth. But it is not certain.
(d) Earth’s magnetic field gets recorded weakly in certain rocks during their solidification. An analysis of these rocks may reveal the history of earth’s magnetism. The earth’s magnetic field gets modified by the field produced by motion of ions in earth’s ionosphere.
(f) When a charged particle moves in a magnetic field, it is deflected along a circular path such that
when B is low, R is high i.e. radius of curvature of path is very large. Therefore, over the gigantic interstellar distance, the deflection of charged particles becomes less noticeable.
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NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 5-Magnetism and Matter