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Question 15: NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 8-Electromagnetic Waves

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Question 15: NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 8-Electromagnetic Waves

Answer the following questions:
(a) Long distance radio broadcasts use short¬wave bands. Why?
(b) It is necessary to use satellites for long distance TV transmission. Why?
(c) Optical and radio telescopes are built on the ground but X-ray astronomy is possible only from satellites orbiting the earth. Why?
(d) The small ozone layer on top of the stratosphere is crucial for human survival. Why?
(e) If the earth did not have an atmosphere, would its average surface temperature be higher or lower than what it is now?
(f) Some scientists have predicted that a global nuclear war on the earth would be followed by a severe ‘nuclear winter’ with a devastating effect on life on earth. What might be the basis of this prediction?

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  1. Solution:
    (a) Electromagnetic waves in frequency range of shortwave band reflect from ionosphere where lower frequency radio waves i.e., medium waves are absorbed. So, short waves are suitable for long distance radio broadcast.
    (b) Very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic waves used in T.V transmission after frequency modulation do not reflect from ionosphere and can only be transmitted straight from antenna. So, the range is highly limited. In order to send the transmission for long distances, satellite is used.
    (c) Atmosphere absorb X-rays, while visible and radio waves can penetrate through it. Hence optical telescope can work on ground but X-ray astronomical telescopes only work above atmosphere, hence installed on the satellite orbiting around earth.
    (d) The thin ozone layer absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiations, y-rays and cosmic radiations. All these high energy radiations can cause damage to the living cells.
    Thus the thin ozone layer on top of the stratosphere is crucial for human survival.
    (e) In the absence of atmosphere, the day temperature can rise to many fold and temperature at night will be much below 0°C. Although the average temperature will be reduced in the absence of green house effect.
    (f) The thick clouds produced by global nuclear war will prevent solar radiation to reach down across the globe. This would cause severe ‘nuclear winter’.

    Check the complete chapter with solutions.

    NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 8-Electromagnetic Waves