Question 11: NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 12-Atoms

Answer the following questions, which helpyou understand the difference between Thomson’s model and Rutherford’s model better.

**(a)** Is the average angle of deflection of a-particles by a thin gold foil predicted by Thomson’s model much less, about the same, or much greater than that predicted by Rutherford’s model?

**(b)** Is the probability of backward scattering (i.e., scattering of a-particles at angles greater than 90°) predicted by Thomson’s model much less, about the same, or much greater than that predicted by Rutherford’s model?

**(c)** Keeping other factors fixed, it is found experimentally that for small thickness t, the number of a-particles scattered at moderate angles is proportional to What clue does this linear dependence on f provide?

**(d)** In which model is it completely wrong to ignore multiple scattering for the calculation of average angle of scattering of a-particles by a thin foil?

Solution:(a)Nearly the same. This is because we are considering the average angle of deflection.(b)Much less, because there is no such massive core (nucleus) in Thomson’s model as in Rutherford’s model.(c)This suggests that scattering is mainly due to a single collision, because the chance of a single collision increases linearly with the number of the target atoms, and hence linearly with the thickness of the foil.(d)In Thomson model, positive charge is distributed uniformly in the atom. So single collision causes very little deflection. The observed average scattering angle can be explained only by considering multiple scattering. Hence, it is wrong to ignore multiple scattering in Thomson’s model.Check the complete chapter with solutions.

NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Physics: Chapter 12-Atoms